spikelet of rice

The spikelet is an inflorescence structure unique to grasses. Increasing rice yield has been an urgent need to support the rapid growth of global population. In this study, we identified and characterized a recessive spikelet mutant, namely more floret1 ( mof1 ). Spikelet sterility due to heat stress during reproductive stage would be one of the prominent factors to reduce rice yield under the projected global warming climate. Sasanishiki) was characterized during grain filling. Without rice improvement, old and current rice varieties with no tolerance to heat stress will suffer yield decline. especially under soil-drying conditions. However, little information is available if BRs could regulate spikelet development in rice (Oryza sativa L.) especially under soil-drying conditions.L.) , 2017 ). The molecular mechanisms underlying spikelet development and evolution are unclear. ), was characterized. Our objectives were to evaluate the effect of spikelet sterility on grain High temperature can induce high spikelet sterility among rice which are at flowering stage, and this can result in having more unfilled grains due to heat stress, and in the process, lower rice … The main regulation of sink size in rice occurs between the stage of late differentiation of the panicle and flowering. However, rice breeders do not generally consider this trait in their efforts to improve rice yield because the typical rice spikelet contains only a single fertile floret and produces one grain. In rice, however, one more pair of sterile glumes, called empty glumes, is formed (Fig. The molecular mechanisms regulating rice spikelet development still remain largely unclear. , 2013 , 2018 , 2019 ; Zhang et al. Here, we report that mutations in OsPEX5, which encodes a peroxisomal targeting sequence 1 (PTS1) receptor protein, cause abnormal spikelet morphology. Stigma and spikelet characteristics play an essential role in hybrid seed production. 2005). Spikelets are arranged into inflorescences of variable size and form: from small, tight heads in many genera to panicles, the usual form of the inflorescence; panicles as long as one metre or more can be found in… 2020 Sep;32(9):2763-2779. doi: 10.1105/tpc.20.00351. Background Brassinosteroids (BRs) are a new group of plant hormones and play important roles in plant growth and development. Rice and maize spikelet structures are considered typical determinate spikelets, which generate fixed numbers of florets; one floret in the rice panicle and two florets in the maize tassel (Bommert et al. New rice (Oryza sativa L.) genotypes bearing a high spikelet number (HS) occasionally cannot show their high yield potentials due to the lower grain‐filling rate. Spikelet temperatures recorded in 2004 were 29.6, 33.7, and 36.2 C, i.e. 社団法人日本土壌肥料学会 Nitrogen accumulation in the apical spikelet of the top primary branch (superior spikelet) and the second spikelet of the lowest secondary branch (inferior spikelet), of the ear on the main stem of rice plant (Oryza sativa L. var. Reduction in rice yield caused by high temperature-induced spikelet sterility has been a serious concern in rice production. 7E); then the spikelet meristem is transformed to a floret meristem to produce two kinds of glumes (one lemma and one palea) and floral7F, G Other articles where Spikelet is discussed: Cyperaceae: Characteristic morphological features: …a single flower), forming the spikelet, the basic unit of a sedge inflorescence. Heat-induced spikelet sterility is one of the major threats to rice production from global warming. Define spikelet. This effect is exacerbated by high rates of nitrogen (N) application in the field. In this study, we characterized three allelic recessive mutants in rice (Oryza Rice ( Oryza sativa ) spikelets have a unique inflorescence structure, and the mechanisms regulating their development are not yet fully understood. Effects of MD on RNA interference (RNAi) line To understand the molecular mechanism through which BRs regulate spikelet development in rice, we used an RNAi line of transgenic rice in which the OsD11 gene encoding a cytochrome P450 enzyme (CYP724B1) involved in BRs biosynthesis had reduced expression (D11-RNAi 1, called DR-1), and its wild type (WT) was the inbred japonica rice … Effect of spikelet removal on the grain filling of Akenohoshi, a rice cultivar with numerous spikelets in a panicle - Volume 142 Issue 2 - T. KATO Skip to main content Accessibility help We use cookies to distinguish you from other users and to provide you with a better experience on our websites. The FZP gene in rice and its maize ortholog, BD1, both act to regulate meristem identity at the transition from spikelet meristem to floret meristem (Chuck et al., 2002; Komatsu et al., 2003). T. Matsui, K. Omasa, T. HorieHigh temperature-induced spikelet sterility of japonica rice at flowering in relation to air temperature, humidity and wind … The fact that fzp and bd1 mutants continuously produce a branching structure rather than making florets suggests that both genes are required for establishing floret meristem identity. Rice is one of the most important crops in the world. In fact, severe heat-induced rice spikelet sterility caused by high temperatures during flowering was observed in the summer of 2003 in China []. 2005). Production of rice spikelets with more However, loss or alteration of function of some genes can result in a multifloret spikelet in rice (Ren et al. To increase yield, rice breeders have traditionally focused on panicle morphology (branch number and length, spikelet density), but have not considered the number of florets in each spikelet. Abstract The spikelet is a unique inflorescence structure in grass. Nitrogen accumulation in the inferior spikelet of rice ear during ripening IWASAKI Y. , Mae Tadahiko , Makino Amane , Ohira Koji , Ojima Kunihiko Soil Sci. We discuss two possibilities for the formation of multi‐floret spikelet in rice, which may facilitate the breeding of rice cultivars with increased grain number per rice panicle. spikelet synonyms, spikelet pronunciation, spikelet translation, English dictionary definition of spikelet. 38, 517-525, 1992 In this study, a dominant rice mutant, lateral florets 1 (lf1), was characterized. Moreover, approaches to manipulate spikelet development have the potential to increase grain yield. Rice strictly produces a pair of sterile lemmas and one floret per spikelet, each containing one lemma and one palea, two lodicules adjacent to the lemma, six stamens and a pistil (Figure 1 A1–A5). Spikelet is the primary reproductive structure and a critical determinant of grain yield in rice. With global warming, rice plants may be subjected to heat stress more regularly during the heat-sensitive flowering stage, causing spikelet sterility and grain yield loss. A mini-core of 90 accessions developed from USDA rice core collection was phenotyped in field grown for nine traits of stigma and spikelet and genotyped with 109 DNA markers, 108 SSRs plus an indel. 0.4, 1.3, and 1.8 C below ambient temperatures, similar to differences observed elsewhere in rice (Satake, 1995) and in peanut flowers in the same growth Spikelet of rice in the fieldの写真素材(No.27486457)。写真素材・イラスト販売のPIXTA(ピクスタ)では5,630万点以上の高品質・低価格のロイヤリティフリー画像素材が550円から購入可能です。毎週更新の無料素材も配布してい The yield components of rice are the number of panicles per unit area, number of spikelets per panicle, weight of spikelet and spikelet sterility or filled spikelet. Summary of rice grain size. Low temperature during panicle development in rice increases spikelet sterility. ERECTA1 Acts Upstream of the OsMKKK10-OsMKK4-OsMPK6 Cascade to Control Spikelet Number by Regulating Cytokinin Metabolism in Rice Plant Cell . In addition, shoot dry weight, grain harvest index, and nitrogen (N The size of grains is one of major components To date, several screening methods have been used, although their reproducibility is sometimes poor due to artifacts mainly caused by varietal differences in heading dates and panicle heights (i.e., the distance from the lamps). The molecular mechanisms behind the development and evolution of the spikelet are far from clear. It is interesting to note that even after the initial decrease of spikelet number an excess capacity of approximately Cultivated rice, Oryza sativa L., originated in the flood plains of Asia with their variable environmental conditions. As global warming advances, the instability of rice production will be enhanced owing]. Spikelet fertility Heat stress at the flowering stage significantly reduced spikelet fertility in rice plants, and the extent of the fertility reduction effect was dependent on the genotypes and heat stress time (Fig. Rice and maize spikelet structures are considered typical determinate spikelets, which generate fixed numbers of florets; one floret in the rice panicle and two florets in the maize tassel (Bommert et al. Plant Nutr. Exacerbated by high temperature-induced spikelet sterility has been a serious concern in rice Plant Cell 1... Temperature-Induced spikelet sterility is one of the OsMKKK10-OsMKK4-OsMPK6 Cascade to Control spikelet Number by regulating Cytokinin Metabolism rice... In this study, a dominant rice mutant, namely more floret1 ( mof1 ) rice ( Oryza L.... The most important crops in the world have the potential to increase grain yield in (., 2018, 2019 ; Zhang et al spikelet translation, English dictionary definition of.. 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